A new article on Kuro5hin.org provides the basics of the Canadian political system:
There are many ways to present a bill to the House, but two common ways are through a free vote, and through a motion of non-confidence. A free vote allows all MPs to vote according to their conscience. Motions of non-confidence are used for bills thought core to the government’s agenda, such as the budget.
It’s probably best to read some of the catty comments to evaluate the writer’s bias.
For a more thorough resource, check out the political writings at Tilting at Windmills. Kevin and Ian have been doing some excellent work making the cases for and against each party. There’s also a decent summary of the Green Party platform, which I was largely unfamiliar with.